The soil formation has been influenced mainly by climate, geology, relief and other biotic interactions. The soils along coastal plains consist of beaches, swamps, marshes, coastal laterite and midland laterite along the coast to an altitude of 300 m, and has a thick layer of soil over a larger area with hard laterite and exposed rocks. The soil is sandy to clayey in texture and is excessively drained to moderately well drain. The soils in the hills and uplands are composed of deep moderately well drained and clayey with high gravel content in the Palghat gap to 2300 asl. The soils of eastern part of Malappuram which is part of Nilgiri, between 2000-2500 m are deep or very deep and well drained with loamy to clayey texture with fairly high gravel content. The soils South of Palghat gap, between 300-2695 m are deep and very deep well drained loamy and clay with fairly high gravel content (Kerala State Land Use Board, 1997).